This article presents the issue of entering Polish multi-word phrasemes and their Russian equivalents in the Polish-Russian dictionary. The author focuses on criteria for establishing phraseme equivalence that should be applied in the process of translation. The examples provided in the article illustrate various kind of limitations which make it difficult to establish reciprocal equivalence of Polish and Russian phrasemes. Multi-word phrasemes excerpted from the contemporary journalistic texts found in the national corpora of both languages, usually not found in translation dictionaries constitute the linguistic material analysed by the author. The article contributes to contemporary research into theoretical and practical issues related to defining and entering of multi-word language units into the Polish-Russian translation dictionary.