POHŘBY LIDSKÝCH JEDINCŮ V PROSTORÁCH NEOLITICKÝCH STAVEB
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Burials of human individuals in the Area of Neolithic buildings
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Burials in the settlement are the inherent part of archaeological discoveries which have been carried out in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The study of human skeletons from the Neolithic settlements was focused mainly on the data collection, comparison and evaluation of individuals buried in the area of settlement structure (especially burials outside and inside the house). There were observed 33 sites from the Neolithic and early Eneolithic period within this work. The burials were divided into 3 categories: a) - sacrifices of construction works, b) - burials in the connection with the house (outside the house), c) - burials inside the house. Except for the human burials there are also mentioned animal burials and ceramic vessels/objects for a comparison. A special part of this study is devoted to the burials of human sacrifices which were intentionally deposited in the foundations of a Neolithic house. 53 examples of burials were used for an analysis (in 44 cases there were human individuals in the graves). The burials in the connection with the house (outside the house) predominated. In this way there were mostly buried children at the age from 6 months to six years. Less than one half of the graves contained doles. The ceramic predominates, jewellery appears only sporadically. These special sacrifices/burials (a, b, c) appear from phase Ib of the Linear pottery culture to the Lengyel culture and continue till the Roman Age. Apart from the inhumations also one cremation appeared (children burial from Litice, district Plzeň). The anthropological analysis showed that the buried individuals suffered from a pathological change caused by an insufficient nutrition or fasting - cribra orbitalia. In Vedrovice the children burials were analysed from the perspective of a nutrition reconstruction and migration. The child from the grave 3/1963 was neither of local origin nor from Vedrovice region. The map processing (programme ArcGIS ) showed locality grouping into four noticeable complexes and several in isolation situated excavations (Litice, Čičarovce and Prešov).
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