CLAY DAUB KOLOVÉ STAVBY LENGYELSKEJ KULTÚRY. PÔDORYSY, INTERIÉR A ICH FUNKCIA
Lengyel Culture stockade buildings. Ground-plans, interior, and their function
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The origin of the Late Neolithic Lengyel Culture formed on the basis of the final Linear Pottery Culture and its Želiezovce group in the primary territory of the western part of Carpathian Basin brought an essential change in all economic, social and cultural areas. In addition to monumental circle objects, the extent of changes is shown also by a principally new ground-plan and construction of stockade buildings. The construction of the garret in the house meant a main innovation in the Lengyel Culture building. Unlike the Linear Pottery Culture, there was a substantial change in the house ground-plan, since the construction of the roof frame with the rooftop was moved to the garret. The supporting posts of the roof frame within the house were not necessary anymore, which resulted in a more comfortable living area. The Lengyel Culture architecture, as well as its spiritual and material culture, thus came closer to the building style present in the contemporary cultures of the Tisa River Basin and in the adjacent Balkans, mainly in the Vinča-Pločnik Culture. The author classifies ground-plans of the Lengyel Culture´s stockade buildings according to a form, size, number of rooms, as well as according to the kind of foundations (post holes, foundation channels) and distinguishes nine types with variants. Changes in the development of buildings were occurring concordantly with the development stages of the culture, and the differences were tied to regional groups of Lengyel Culture. There occur also two types of small stockade buil-dings – with floors and stockade construction in a deep ditch (Těšetice-Kyjovice, Osterhofen-Schmiedorf), and above ground (Branč). In the underground part there could be a cellar covered with a floor, and in the overground part a granary. The clay models of buildings with the depicted clay plaster on the whole surface including the roof frame (Kočín, Střelice, Horná Seč), depict overground granaries for corn. The clay plaster over the whole surface isolated the construction against fire. Little stockade buildings served as a farm facilities, as well as granaries for corn. Remnants of a burnt house from the settlement in a dry river bed in Budmerice document the existence of a garret, interior and equipment of a house belonging to the Ludanice group of the Late Lengyel Culture. The atypical house contained three fireplaces around which there were containers and pairs of clay discs. The characterised house types were built at the time following the decline of Linear Pottery Culture and preceding the origin of the Baden Culture.
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