The article aims to reconstruct the history of Karaites in the perspective of dualisms of identity (poligenealogies, bilingualism, etc.) among this ethnic and religious group, which according to the authors is an illustration of “postmodern identity re-transformations”. Emphasizing the social and religious aspects of Karaism the authors portray “the minor minority” of the Republic of Poland as an exemplification of postmodern statements on “troubles with cultivating identity” in which the cardinal constructional rule remains “doubting” in Anthony Giddens’ terms. Scrutinizing the first references and records on Karaites as well as their wandering history throughout the whole Europe up to the contemporary times, the authors propose a thesis on the immanent features of deterritorialization and identity eclecticism ascribed to Karaism from the dawn of its history. Thus the title “question about identity” of Karaites remains a dual one: directed towards the past (“who were we?” and “where do we come from?”) as well as to the future (“who are we going to be?”, “where are we heading?”).