Kontinuita nebo změna? Haličští konzervativci vůči projevům demokratizace, emancipace a modernizace v Rakousku na přelomu 19. a 20. století
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CONTINUITY OR A CHANGE? THE GALICIAN CONSERVATIVES OPPOSING THE SIGNS OF DEMOCRATIZATION, EMANCIPATION AND MODERNIZATION IN AUSTRIA AT THE TURN OF THE 19TH CENTURY
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By the end of the 19th century the Polish-Lithuanian state declined and disintegrated. As a result, Malopolska, the southern part of the former state, appeared under the Habsburg rule and this new territory of their empire was renamed Galicia. For eighty years after the disintegration of the Polish state Galicia was the worst annexed territory. The local nobility had to quickly adapt to the new political order and law. The diet of nobility was converted into a diet of estates, instead of free vote there were now petitions to the throne. Local ruling nobles were replaced by the rule of foreigners, mostly Czech and German officials. The Galician conservatives were divided (not only geographically) in two parts: the West Galician group and the East Galician group. The first were called “stańczycy“, the latter “podolaci”. Comparing the two groups we can say that the conservatives of Cracow were certainly more open to changes. On the other hand, the conservatism of “podolaci” was “blind” and “absolute”, their program being limited to the slogan: “What will be here must be what was here”. Due to thein traditionalist attitudes the Polish conservatives failed to understand and accept “the modern world”. Therefore, they would never again play the same role as they did in the history of autonomous Galicia. Their vacated positions were taken by “modern” mass political parties.
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