Kulturowe uwarunkowania przywództwa politycznego w Chinach kontynentalnych — przykład konfucjanizmu
CULTURAL CONDITIONS OF POLITICAL LEADERSHIP IN THE CONTINENTAL CHINA — EXAMPLE OF CONFUCIANISM
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This article describes a cultural specificity of China, influencing the Chinese perception of political relations and that type of political leadership. In case of China, what matters is a much greater human dependence on the natural environment and on other people than in the European countries. The traditional cult of the ancestors has had a huge impact on the attitude of the present generation towards the political leadership. In the past Confucianism made the relations between the emperor and the subjects resemble those in the family. This article details such basic Confucian virtues as: ren and li, it also explains the concept of the emperors as “the Sons of Heaven’’ and the “Mandate of Heaven’’ associated with it. Even today the Chinese society is fond of these concepts. The concept of Confucian harmony (he), understood as a reconciliation and unification of the opposites, still present in the political life of the continental China, was also described. From the point of view of the author, the present glorification of the higher level of education as a road to career constitutes a combination of the requirements of the modernity with the tradition of the Confucian meritocracy.
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