Poczatki piśmiennictwa słowiańskiego oraz tłumaczeń na język cerkiewno-słowiański. Cerkiewno-słowiańskie tłumaczenia, historia i rozwój
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THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SLAVIC LITERATURE AND TRANSLATION INTO CHURCH SLAVONIC LANGUAGE. CHURCH SLAVONIC TRANSLATION, HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
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The appearance of Slavonic literature is related to the history of early medieval Europe. Speaking of the early literature, as well as translations of liturgical texts, we must mention the oldest centers of literature, whose division has been made in terms of the mission of St. Cyril and Methodius. In the so-called Moravian period this were Mikulčicei Sady near Old Mesta, and Pannonia Mosapurk, the seat of the Duke Kocela. After the collapse of the mission of St. Cyril and Methodius, there remained for some time Slavic monasteries in the Czech Republic (the most famous is the Sazava near Prague), and probably in Pannonia, but the main center of Slavic literature moved to the south. There was a Bulgarian school in Preslav and Macedonian school of St. Clement in Ochrid. Translation of biblical texts by Cyril and Methodius is characterized by beautiful language and fidelity to the content, but it is not an accurate translation. Indeed, they explained for clarity, not for the accuracy of the expressions and phrases. St. Cyril and Methodius were faithful to the Greek model, where it was possible. This was based on two sources: firstly a deep knowledge of the Bible, secondly the mastery of the original language and translation of it. Lexical fidelity were rarely broken , and it was never result of chance. Rather, it was due to subordination of the other, considered to be more important, substantive way. The inaccuracy inherited in the past by the Slavonic translation of the inaccuracy was due to causes similar to those that drove the St. Cyril and Methodius: minuteness of the lexical field could cause confusion on the merits, dismissed the biblical text rather than explain it. Accomplishment of precise clarity in the Slavonic text proceeded patchily. St. Cyril and Methodius were guided by different methods, whose implementation was possible due to the excellent linguistic intuition, and realization of the morphological differences occurring between the Greek and Slavic words, and thanks to their ingenuity in creating new words. The work of the first Apostles of the Slavs didn’t disappeared along with their death, founding worthy successors and followers among their students, who, after the fall of the mission in 885, moved the sacred books to new missionary territories, mostly to Bulgaria. In the period between IX–X to the XIV century there arose three great centers of literature, two of Old-Church-Slavonic and a one Middle-Bulgarian, called schools of Ochrid, Preslav and Tyrnovo.
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