Haale spektri mahiskovera kuju stabiilsus varieeruva dunaamikaga heliredelite laulmisel
THE STABILITY OF VOICE SOURCE SPECTRAL ENVELOPE IN SINGING SCALES WITH VARYING DYNAMICS
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The aim of the present work was to investigate whether and how the timbre-related voice parameters change when classically trained vocalists sing vocal tasks with varying voice dynamics and pitch. This research question was motivated by a standpoint often expressed in literature that one of the goals of classical voice training is the evenness of the sound. In the empirical experiment we asked ten male vocalists (opera and oratorio soloists, and voice students) to sing one-octave ascending D-major scales (from D3 to D4) in three different ways: (1) with most habitual dynamics without intentional dynamic changes; (2) with sempre crescendo; and (3) with sempre diminuendo. We recorded the performances in a studio with low reverberation. Then we calculated the average power spectrums for each sung note with the help of software Sopran 1.0.10. We determined the levels of the fundamental component and the singer’s formant in relation to the level of the strongest peak of the spectrum. We also measured the levels of the sound pressure and the values of the closed quotients and quasi-contact quotients (which characterize the strength of the glottal adduction during phonation). The values of investigated parameters changed systematically during the vocal tasks in the case of all singers. Some of these changes had purely acoustical reasons, which cannot be controlled by the vocal technique of the singer. However, some singers used the strategies, the aim of which was probably the improvement of the perceived evenness of the voice. One of such strategies was the creation of difference between the piano and forte dynamics mainly by changing the timbre and not so much by altering the sound pressure level of the voice. The opposite strategy was the changing of the sound level while keeping the variability of the relative level of the singer’s formant small (which characterizes the brightness and carrying power of the voice). The perceived evenness of the voice may also depend on some other voice properties that we did not address in this work. The pattern of changes in the voice parameters may also depend on the used vowels and pitch range.
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