HRM efficiency and effectiveness are rarely discussed in Polish literature in terms of economics or management studies. Mainly English terms—achievement, outcome, and performance—are applied in any description, measurement, or assessment of the behavior and actions of people in organizations. According to Corvellec , they mainly serve to legitimize actions taken. The aim of this paper is to analyze the various aspects of the efficiency and effectiveness of HRM, with special stress on the context of small and medium enterprises, conducted from the point of view of non–identical theoretical paradigms. It serves to enrich the perceptive infrastructure of the personnel function in the organization.