Kobiecość odzyskana? Pomiędzy sex a gender i esencją a konstruktem, czyli historia zgubnych dualizmów
FEMININITY RECOVERED? SEX AND GENDER, ESSENCE AND CONSTRUCT. A HISTORY OF PERNICIOUS DUALISMS
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The aim of the article is to depict the basic categories and problems concerning philosophical thought about femininity, as well as to offer a critique of dualisms assumed to be self-evident and necessary for an analysis of femininity and masculinity. These dualisms were created according to “either-or” logic and suggest that reality is based on hierarchical pairs of opposites (i.e. woman—man, sex—gender, essence—construct, nature—culture, body—mind), which lead to an ostensible alternative of essentialism - constructivism. This article traces the consequences of taking for granted a binary-oriented construction of reality, which determines the direction of analysis and leads to reductionist conclusions. Moreover, the article suggests a scheme of philosophical anthropology called “feminology”, which on the one hand aims to study femininity without political references or a reductionist approach, and on the other analyzes femininity not as opposed to masculinity, but as “different from” it.
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