Mineralogical study of the beads from cemetery in Devín castle from the 11th – 12th century
The beads from the 11th and 12th century cemetery at Bratislava´s Devín Castle were analysed with help of the X-ray diffraction analysis with Goebel mirror and Raman spectroscopy. The orange-red and violet beads, sometimes in older literature marked as amethyst beads, were selected for the study. Mineralogical composition of the individual beads was determined according to the macroscopic signs and experimentally obtained data. While violet beads are made from fluorite, the orange-red ones are made from carnelian. The fluorite as well as carnelian beads are imported, since fluorite and carnelian do not occur in Slovakia in sufficient quality. Based on the distribution of deposits with the occurrence of fluorite and fluorite beads it may be expected that the raw material comes from Germany, Austria or Bohemia. As far as carnelian is concerned, because of the missing data about a detailed mineralogical and chemical composition of beads and potential raw materials, it is not possible to determine the provenance of raw materials used for their production.
Slovenské národné múzeum, Prírodovedné múzeum, Vajanského nábrežie 2, 810 06 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
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