Since China made its transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, rural education system has changed fundamentally and great progress has been achieved. However, the availability and affordability of rural compulsory education still face huge challenges. On top of the list are issues such as difficulties in schooling, high dropout rates, inadequate investments and poor education quality. Public investments in education have long-term impacts on rural human capital accumulation and rural development. Therefore, efforts in three aspects need to be made to develop of rural compulsory education. Firstly, enhance the fiscal decentralization reform and strengthen legal system construction, ensuring public investments in rural compulsory education. Secondly, deepen education reform and improve the quality of rural compulsory education. Thirdly, further develop rural economy, making education more affordable to rural population.