Návrhy volebních reforem v období první ČSR 1918–1938 v právním pojetí Otakara Krouského, Josefa Klimenta a Františka Weyra
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ELECTION REFORMS PROPOSED DURING THE EXISTENCE OF THE FIRST CZECHOSLOVAK REPUBLIC (1918-1938) AS VIEWED BY OTAKAR KROUSKÝ, JOSEF KLIMENT AND FRANTIŠEK WEYR
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Compared to the neighboring countries, the political system in Czechoslovakia between the two world wars appeared to be an island of democracy in Central Europe, particularly after the seizure of power in Germany by the Nazis and the annexation of Austria by the German Reich. Still, however, various aspects of the democratic system in Czechoslovakia were criticized by some theoreticians and politicians, also from democratic points of view. This applies also to the electoral system. The heaviest criticism of the electoral system during the First Czechoslovak Republic focused on two electoral techniques: The use of Hare’s method in the first scrutiny to calculate the mandate number, and the practice of using strictly conditioned candidate lists. With the application of this method there were more surplus votes for the second scrutiny than when using another technique, such as the Hagebach-Bischoff method. Thus, the whole system based on political parties became one of the crucial problems of Czechoslovak democracy in the period under consideration. The position of party bosses was extremely strong, the conditions inside the party were highly centralized. Party members were controlled through conditioned candidacy. A widely applied practice was the ideological viewing of potential party renegades. The parties acquired too much power in influencing the state administration. In spite of the questionable features of the party role in the country’s political system there were some advocates of it. Therefore, neither the electoral system nor the structure of political parties changed until 1938.
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