Along with the burning of books in 1933 at the latest a new era began for German writers. Some of the famous authors emigrated, others stayed in the Nazi Germany and kept on publishing within the confines of their opportunities. After the Second World War a dispute sparked off between the literary refugees and the so-called Inner Emigration on the value of books published under the dictatorship of Hitler. Thomas Mann accused the so-called Inner Emigration of passivity and submission to the regime. However, there existed possibilities of bypassing the National Socialist censorship by using camouflaging language. Such writers as Reinhold Schneider or Rudolf Pechel tried to criticize the rule of NSDAP between the lines, secretly and yet distinctly.