PL EN


2009 | 72 | 1 | 45-65
Article title

Current status and future directions of research on facial attractiveness

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Abstracts
EN
The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the perception of facial attractiveness and to assess the opportunity for research on poorly explored issues regarding facial preferences. A theoretical framework of research problems was proposed, within which the current state of knowledge on each topic was estimated. The analysis proved that a disproportional amount of research concerned several topics, while many other topics were addressed by few studies, the results of which being sometimes contradictory. Next, possible obstacles to more comprehensive research are discussed. This leads to the conclusion that the obstacles do not severely hinder investigations of most poorly studied problems. The results of the author's recent studies on some of these topics are also briefly reported. In spite of thousands of studies conducted, facial attractiveness research may be regarded as rather poorly progressed, although prospects for it are good.
PL
Badania atrakcyjności fizycznej przeprowadzone w latach 60. ubiegłego wieku wykazały dużą zgodność w ocenie atrakcyjności twarzy przez osoby pochodzące z tej samej lub z różnych populacji. Wynikało z nich również, że cecha ta ma znaczenie dla łączenia się ludzi w pary. Od tego czasu nastąpił lawinowy wzrost liczby badań nad atrakcyjnością fizyczną. Opublikowano tysiące prac o atrakcyjności twarzy, a każdego roku pojawia się kilkadziesiąt nowych. Może to sugerować, że tematyka ta została już dobrze zbadana. W przedstawianej pracy podjęto próbę (1) oszacowania aktualnego stanu wiedzy na temat postrzegania atrakcyjności twarzy, (2) wskazania zagadnień niewystarczająco zbadanych oraz (3) ocenę możliwości i kierunków dalszych badań.Wynik oceny atrakcyjności zależy od sposobu rozumienia przez osobę oceniającą (sędziego) pojęcia "atrakcyjność". Badania nad atrakcyjnością powinny więc dotyczyć nie tylko cech osób ocenianych, lecz również różnorakich cech sędziego oraz sposobu, w jaki pojmuje on pojęcie atrakcyjności. Opis preferencji dla twarzy powinien obejmować nie tylko ich typowy charakter, ale także ich międzyosobnicze i międzypopulacyjne zróżnicowanie, wewnątrzosobniczą i wewnątrzpopulacyjną zmienność w czasie, oraz ich nietypowe formy. Wyjaśnienia preferencji dla twarzy powinny być dokonywane na kilku płaszczyznach: fizjologicznej, ontogenetycznej, filogenetycznej i funkcjonalnej. Należy uwzględnić konsekwencje postrzegania atrakcyjności twarzy, zarówno biologiczne (sukces reprodukcyjny), jak i społeczne (dotyczące nie-reprodukcyjnych aspektów relacji międzyludzkich).Oceny poziomu aktualnego stanu wiedzy o każdym z powyższych zagadnień dokonywano na podstawie trzech kryteriów: liczby badań dotyczących danego problemu, zgodności wyników między tymi badaniami oraz zgodności wyników empirycznych z teoretycznymi przewidywaniami. Analiza wykazała, że nieproporcjonalnie duża liczba badań dotyczyła kilku zagadnień, podczas gdy wiele innych poruszono w nielicznych pracach, których wyniki są czasami sprzeczne. Trzy zagadnienia można uznać za dobrze zbadane: ocenę atrakcyjności w kontekście partnerskim, preferencje młodych osób dorosłych (studentów) oraz krótkotrwałe skutki społeczne atrakcyjności (tab. 1). Wśród słabo zbadanych kwestii, za najważniejsze trzeba uznać: wyjaśnienia filogenetyczne preferencji, zmienność międzypopulacyjną preferencji, odziedziczalność atrakcyjności twarzy oraz preferencji, ekologiczne i psychologiczne uwarunkowania zmienności preferencji, przyczyny wewnątrzosobniczej zmienności preferencji, długotrwałe konsekwencje społeczne atrakcyjności, nietypowe formy preferencji, preferencje dla twarzy w kontekstach nie-reprodukcyjnych, zmiany ontogenetyczne preferencji oraz względne znaczenie cech twarzy dla jej atrakcyjności (tab. 1).Warto zwrócić uwagę na kilka czynników potencjalnie ograniczających możliwości badań nad powyższymi zagadnieniami. Istnieją przeszkody natury zasadniczej (związane z "nieuchwytnością" samego zjawiska), etycznej, czasowej, finansowej oraz metodologicznej. Analiza doprowadziła do wniosku, że badania nad większością słabo poznanych, jak dotąd, zagadnień nie są poważnie ograniczane przez żadną z tych przeszkód. Ograniczenia natury czasowej, finansowej oraz etycznej mają znaczenie dla badań preferencji w populacjach odizolowanych od kultury zachodniej oraz badań długotrwałych konsekwencji społecznych atrakcyjności. Ograniczenia te nie są jednak na tyle poważne, by wykluczały tego rodzaju badania. Jedynie wyjaśnienia filogenetyczne atrakcyjności twarzy oraz preferencji dla twarzy, z przyczyn zasadniczych, muszą pozostać spekulatywne. Zatem, pomimo tysięcy opublikowanych prac, badania nad atrakcyjnością twarzy należy uznać za dość słabo zaawansowane, natomiast perspektywy dalszego rozwoju tej dziedziny wydają się dobre.
Publisher
Year
Volume
72
Issue
1
Pages
45-65
Physical description
Contributors
  • Institute of Anthropology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
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bwmeta1.element.cejsh-article-doi-10-2478-v10044-008-0015-3
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