World War I resulted in favourable political circumstances for the rebirth of independent Poland in 1918. The war raised for Russia a difficult question of Poland's future. Its solution was outlined in the proclamation to Polish people, which was issued by the commander-in-chief of the Russian army, grand duke Nicolai Nicolaevich at the beginning of the war. It was loaded with empty political promises.The war aroused pro-Polish emotions in Russia along with hopes that Poles together with Russia will fight against Germany and Austria. Those hopes were reflected in numerous poems "to sister Poland", "to Polish brothers", published in various articles and war reports from Poland. They created a vision of self-governing Poland, enjoying freedom of language and religion but remaining under the tsar's rule as a part of the Russian empire.