The article aims at characteristics of the multiple approaches to the theory of the political culture of the Balkan countries. The text begins with a theoretical definition of the concept of the political culture, follows the analysis of the some views on culture and society in the Balkans. The study is focused mainly to three countries of the former Yugoslavia – Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. The strong emphasis is given on the use of the cleavage theory. The author concludes that the cleavage theory can bring new empirically provable facts on research of political culture of the Balkan counties.