The author notes that although the issue of the relationship between cinema and reality is present in the reflection on moving pictures almost from the beginning of their existence, it only became an important theoretical problem in the late forties. It is therefore necessary to reflect on the impact of the experience of World War II on the emergence of this relationship as a theoretical issue. Kwiatkowska, citing concepts of Gilles Deleuze, maintains that film turned out to be the only medium that could give expression to changes occurring in the ways of perceiving reality. Paradoxically, with the increase of trust in the moving image there is also a growing skepticism and concern about having our perception deceived and reality falsely presented by the film. The author discusses three, in her opinion, most significant attempts at formulation of theoretical frameworks for the understanding of this doubt in the cinema – namely the ideas of Roland Barthes, the work of psychoanalytic film theorists and the theories of Jean Baudrillard. At the same time she also identifies in those theories the need for affirmation. Finally, calling on the work of Agnes Varda, the author wonders where in contemporary cinema one may find the equilibrium between doubting the image and its affirmation.