There are two different traditions of thinking about social and political life which are represented by the concepts of taxis and kosmos. According to the first of them we should trust in the human mind because it can design and put in practice a suitable social order. Conversely, in the opinion of the latter tradition, we should appreciate that a spontaneous order comes into existence as a result of free decisions of particular individuals who are not realizing any general plan. Hayek belongs to this tradition, pointing out the beneficent effects of voluntary cooperation. The individuals take part in what they cannot design and make happen, but thanks to their free participation they build a good society and a just state. Hayek’s position shows a naïve faith in the power of spontaneous human activity because people can choose also, in the voluntaristic paradigm, slavery. Because of this propensity of spontaneous human activity, it is incumbent upon political authority, for the common good and more equality, to restrict an excessive freedom. In the way proposed by Hayek, what in fact comes into existence is a welfare state, a state which spouts the slogans of social justice, a state which in Hayek’s own opinion, is actually an instrument of serfdom.