This article focuses on the formation of the Estonian community in Brazil at the beginning of the 20th century. There were three waves of migration: the first decade of the 20th century, the time between the two world wars and the migration of Estonian refugees after World War II. Allegedly, the first Estonians reached Brazil at the beginning of the 19th century, although this is very unlikely. The first documented case is a sailor named Jüri Jürison, who visited Rio de Janeiro during his voyage from Kronstadt to Vladivostok in 1865. The first Estonian who resided in Brazil was a missionary named Hans Tiismann, who worked as a reverend in Santa Cruz in the years 1875-1884. The first evidence of the permanent Estonian population dates from 1902. The first larger group of Estonians arrived in Brazil in 1906 and immigration continued in subsequent years. The Brazilian states, especially Sao Paolo, were on constant promotion tours in Europe in order to attract more manpower to Brazil. It is not known how many Estonians reached Brazil at the beginning of the 20th century, but based on an estimate, the number could have been between 500 and 1000. Quite a large number of them were inhabitants of Estonian communes from other parts of the Russian Empire and many of them were Baptists. Due to the difficult conditions over there, several of those who had migrated to Brazil returned to their homeland after a few years. The article describes the causes of Estonians’ emigration to Brazil, the composition of migrants, group size, and adaptation in their new homeland. Also the article examines the promotional brochure written by Johann Gutmann, which had a strong influence on migrants.