This study examined the effect of temperament on preferences for painted artwork. Our preferences are determined by different personality traits. The study presented here was a replication of the current study of Terror Management Theory (TMT) with the structures of temperament as individual differences. The results showed significant differences in preferences for traditional and modern art, depending on the degree of harmonization of the temperamental structures. Sanguines and melancholics in the no fear condition evaluated modern art most highly, however in the fear condition they evaluated traditional art most highly. This effect confirms the importance of individual differences and the situational variability of preferences in art.