The study points to the question of identity of Byzantine philosophy in its relation to Ancient Greek philosophy as it can be exemplified on John Philoponus´ work. Significance of Philoponus´ commentary rests in his remarkable affinity to modern critique of Aristotle´s explanation of nature. Aristotle´s treatise on heavens, its composition and intention exemplifies that Philoponus´ critique unintentionally evades the possibility of inquiring into the very own, philosophical, meaning of Aristotle´s explication. It also determines the way we enable ourselves to follow Aristotle´s decisive articulation of the concept of motion, change and nature. The question of eternity and finitude of the world in Aristotle can lead us today to reconsideration of the meaning of historicity as well as physicality of the world.