The article Fernando Pessoa and the saudosismo of Teixeira de Pascoaes is dedicated to the study of the relations between the basic ideas of Pessoa’s theories of the “mystical nationalism” and the saudosismo of Teixeira de Pascoaes which seem to be more important and long-lasting that is generally thought. The first part of an article is a short analysis of the three articles published by Pessoa in 1912 in ”A Águia”: A nova poesia portuguesa sociologicamente considerada, Reincidindo… and A nova poesia portuguesa no seu aspecto psicologico, that bring out the Pessoa’s positive attitude towards the poetry and philosophy of saudosismo, the idea of super-Camoes and the certainty of the near national resurgence from the state of decadence. The Pessoa’s opinions about the place of Renascenca Portuguesa in the Portuguese culture are also analysed. The second part of an article is dedicated to the juxtaposition of the key-ideas of the Pessoa’s theory and the Pascoaes’ ones, which constitute their more probable source. These ideas are: the Portuguese mentality, a denationalization, a dream, an attitude toward Catholicism and Christianity, the function of sebastianism, an interiorization and spiritualization, the metaphors and historical reinterpretations, the idea of a genius, the role of the Portuguese language, and the questions of the art of thinking, just as a preference for the syntheses.