2012 | 2(59) | 27-74
Article title

W poszukiwaniu asyryjskiej diaspory Izraelitów w Księdze Ezechiela

Title variants
In Search for the Assyrian Israelite Diaspora in the Book of Ezekiel
Languages of publication
The article deals with the argument of W. Chrostowski about the Assyrian Israelite Diaspora as a factor influencing the book of Ezekiel. First, the author verifies the Ezekielian texts evoked by Chrostowski as arguments for his thesis (garden of Eden motif; “the 30th year” in Ezek 1:1; subjects participating in the dispute about the possession of the promised land in Ezek 11:14-17; allusion to Samaria in Ezek 23; the vision of dry bones in Ezek 37:1-14). The second part of the article examines the possibility of existence of the Assyrian Diaspora in the light of biblical and extra-biblical sources. The analysis of the situation of the Israelites deported to Assyria after the fall of Samaria in 722 B.C.E. (especially in the context of the population and religion politics of the Assyrian Empire) permits to exclude the existence of the Assyrian Israelite Diaspora and the claim that it could not only preserve, but also deepen and strengthen its identity. The third part of the article argues that the audience of Ezekiel does not derive from the descendants of the Israelites exiled to Assyria. Thus, the book of Ezekiel is the testimony written for those who experienced the Babylonian exile only.
  • JP II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
  • A. Albertz, A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period. I. From the Beginnings to the End of the Exile [London 1994]
  • R. Albertz, Die Exilzeit. 6. Jahrhundert v. Chr. (BE 7; Stuttgart 2001)
  • S. Anthonioz, L’eau, enjeux politiques et théologiques, de Sumer à la Bible (VT.S 131; Leiden ‒ Boston 2009)
  • M.C. Astour, „Ezekiel’s Prophecy of Gog and the Cuthean Legend of Naram-Sin”, JBL 95 (1976)
  • H.M. Barstad, The Myth of Empty Land. A Study in the History and Archeology of Judah Turing the “Exilic” Period [Symbolae Osloenses. Fasc. Suppl. 28; Oslo 1996]
  • B.F. Batto, „Paradise Reexamined”, The Biblical Canon in Comparative Perspective. Scripture in Context IV (red. K.L. Younger, Jr. – W.H. Hallo – B.F. Batto) (Lewiston, NY 1991)
  • B. Becking, The Fall of Samaria. A Historical and Archaeological Study (Studies in the History of the Ancient Near East 2; Leiden – New York – Köln 1992)
  • E. Ben Zvi, „Total Exile, Empty Land and the General Intellectual Discourse in Yehud”, The Concept of Exile in Ancient Israel and its Historical Context [red. E. Ben Zvi – C. Levin] [BZAW 404; Berlin – New York 2010]
  • T.J. Betts, Ezekiel the Priest. A Custodian of Tôrâ (Studies in Biblical Literature 74; New York i in. 2005)
  • J. Blenkinsopp, Ezekiel (Interpretation; Louisville, KY 1990)
  • J. Blenkinsopp, Ezekiel (Interpretation; Atlanta, GA 1990)
  • D.I. Block, „Beyond the Grave: Ezekiel’s Vision of Death and Afterlife”, BBR 2 (1992)
  • D.I. Block, The Book of Ezekiel. Chapters 1–24 (NICOT; Grand Rapids, MI – Cambridge 1997)
  • D.I. Block, The Book of Ezekiel. Chapters 25–48 (NICOT; Grand Rapids, MI – Cambridge 1998)
  • E. Bloch-Smith, Judahite Burial Practices and Beliefs about the Dead (JSOT.S 123; Sheffield 1992)
  • D. Bodi, The Book of Ezekiel and the Poem of Erra (OBO 104; Göttingen 1991)
  • W.H. Brownlee, Ezekiel 1–19 (WBC 28; Waco, TX 1986)
  • M. Cogan, Imperialism and Religion. Assyria, Judah and Israel in the Eighth and Seventh Centuries B.C.E. (SBL.MS 19; Missoula, MT 1974)
  • S.W. Cole, Nippur in Late Assyrian Times c. 755-612 BC (State Archives of Assyria Studies; Helsinki 1996)
  • G.A. Cooke, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Ezekiel (ICC; Edinburgh 1936)
  • W. Chrostowski, „Asyryjska diaspora Izraelitów – wyzwania i perspektywy badawcze”, Asyryjska diaspora Izraelitów i inne studia (RSB 10; Warszawa 2003)
  • W. Chrostowski, „Ezechiel jako świadek asyryjskiej diaspory Izraelitów”, Asyryjska diaspora Izraelitów i inne studia (RSB 10; Warszawa 2003)
  • W. Chrostowski, „Izraelici w asyryjskich strukturach administracyjnych i wojskowych – przyczynek do badań nad sytuacją diaspory Izraelitów w Asyrii”, Ex Oriente Lux. Księga Pamiątkowa dla Księdza Profesora Antoniego Troniny w 65. rocznicę urodzin (red. W. Chrostowski) (Warszawa 2010)
  • W. Chrostowski, „«Nic nie zostało, jak tylko samo pokolenie Judy» (2 Krl 17,18b) – czy naprawdę? Zagłada Samarii i Królestwa Judy oraz jej skutki”, Asyryjska diaspora Izraelitów i inne studia (RSB 10; Warszawa 2003)
  • W. Chrostowski, „Od diaspory asyryjskiej do diaspory babilońskiej”, Asyryjska diaspora Izraelitów i inne studia (RSB 10; Warszawa 2003)
  • W. Chrostowski, Ogród Eden – zapoznane świadectwo asyryjskiej diaspory (RSB 1; Warszawa 1996)
  • W. Chrostowski, Prorok wobec dziejów. Interpretacje dziejów Izraela w Księdze Ezechiela 16, 20 i 23 oraz ich reinterpretacja w Septuagincie (Warszawa 1991)
  • W. Chrostowski, „Przymusowe przesiedlenia ludności mezopotamskiej do Palestyny w kontekście polityki deportacyjnej władców Asyrii”, red. W. Chrostowski, Przybliżyło się Królestwo Boże. Księga pamiątkowa dla Księdza Profesora Romana Bartnickiego w 65. rocznicę urodzin, Warszawa 2008
  • W. Chrostowski, „Wizja ożywienia wyschniętych kości (Ez 37,1-14) jako świadectwo asyryjskiej diaspory Izraelitów”, CT 77/4 (2007)
  • S. Dalley, „Foreign Chariotry and Cavalery in the Armies of Tiglath-Pileser III and Sargon II”, Iraq 46 (1984)
  • S. Dalley, „Recent Evidence from Assyrian Sources for Judaean History from Uzziah to Manasseh”, JSOT 28 (2004)
  • E.F. Davis, Swallowing the Scroll. Textuality and the Dynamics of Discourse in Ezekiel’s Prophecy (JSOT.S 78; Sheffield 1989).
  • G. van Driel, „Eight Century Nippur”, Bibliotheca Orientalis 55 (1998)
  • D. Dziadosz, Tak było na początku… Izrael opowiada swoje dzieje. Literacka i teologiczna analiza wiodących tradycji Księgi Rodzaju (Przemyśl 2011)
  • D.M. Elliot, „Exavations at Nippur”, Archeology and the Bible 60 (1990)
  • I. Eph‘al, „«The Samarian(s)» in the Assyrian Sources”, Ah, Assyria... Studies in Assyrian History and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography Prestented to Hayim Tadmor (red. M. Cogan – I. Eph‘al) (Scripta Hierosolymitana 33; Jerusalem 1991)
  • I. Eph‘al, „The Western Minorities in Babylonia in the 6th-5th Centuries B.C. Maintenance and Cohesion”, Or 47 [1978]
  • F.M. Fales, „West Semitic Names in the Assyrian Empire. Diffusion and Social Relevance”, Studi epigrafici e linguistici 8 (1991)
  • I. Finkelstein, „The Archeology of the Days of Manasseh”, Scripture and Other Artifacts. Essays on the Bible and Archeology in Honor of Philip J. King (red. M.D. Cogan – J.C. Exum – L.E. Stager) (Louisville, KY 1994)
  • I. Finkelstein, „The Settlement History of Jerusalem in the Eighth and Seventh Centuries BC”, RB 115 (2008)
  • I. Finkelstein – N.A. Silberman, „Temple and Dynasty. Hezekiah, the Remaking of Judah and the Rise of the Pan-Israelite Ideology”, JSOT 30 (2006)
  • K.G. Friebel, Jeremiah’s and Ezekiel’s Sign-Acts (JSOT.S 283; Sheffield 1999)
  • G. Garbini, Storia e ideologia nell’Israele antico (Biblioteca di storia e storiografia dei tempi biblici 3; Brescia 1986)
  • S. Garfinkel, „Of Thistles and Thorns. A New Approach to Ezekiel ii.6”, VT 37 (1987)
  • I. Gluska, „An Experienced Scribe Who Neglects Nothing”. Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honor of Jacob Klein [red. Y. Sefati i in.] [Bethesda, MD 2004]
  • C.H. Gordon, „The Origin of the Jews in Elephantine”, JNES 14 (1955)
  • A. Graffy, A Prophet Confronts his People. The Disputation Speech in the Prophets (AnBib 104; Rome 1984)
  • M. Greenberg, Ezekiel 1–20. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AB 22; New York 1983)
  • Greenberg, Ezekiel 20–37. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary [AB 22A; New York 1997]
  • P. Guillaume, „Jerusalem 720-705 BCE. No Flood of Israelite Refugees”, SJOT 22 (2008)
  • H. Hoffner, „Propaganda and Political Justification in Hittite Historiography”, Unity and Diversity. Essays in the History, Literature and Religion of the Ancient Near East [red. H. Goedicke – J.J.M. Roberts] [Balimore, MD 1975]
  • Holladay, Jeremiah 2. A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Jeremiah. Chapters 26–52 (Hermeneia; Philadelphia 1986)
  • S.W. Holloway, Aššur is King! Aššur is King! Religion in the Exercise of Power in the Neo-Assyrian Empire (Culture and History of the Ancient Near East 10; Leiden – Boston – Köln 2002)
  • F. Johannès, Historia Mezopotamii w I. tysiącleciu przed Chrystusem (Poznań 2007)
  • P.M. Joyce, Ezekiel. A Commentary (LHB/OTS 482; New York – London 2007)
  • J. Kiefer, Exil und Diaspora. Begrifflichkeit und Deutung im antiken Judentum und in der Hebräischen Bibel (Arbeiten zur Bibel und ihrer Geschichte 19; Lepizig 2005)
  • R.W. Klein, Ezekiel. The Prophet and his Message (SPOT; Columbia, SC 1988)
  • L. Koehler – W. Baumgartner, Hebräisches und Aramäisches Lexikon zum Alten Testament (Leiden – New York – Köln 1995)
  • T. Krüger, Geschichtskonzepte im Ezechielbuch (BZAW 180; Berlin 1989)
  • J.F. Kutsko, Between Heaven and Earth. Divine Presence and Absence in the Book of Ezekiel (BJSt 7; Winona Lake, IN 2000)
  • A. Laato, „Assyrian Propaganda and the Falsification of History in the Royal Inscriptions of Sennacherib”, VT 45 (1995)
  • A. Laato, Josiah and David Redivivus. The Historical Josiah and the Mesianic Expectations of Exilic and Postexilic Times (ConBOT 33; Stockholm 1992)
  • G.M. Landes, „Jonah. A mäšäl”, Israelite Wisdom. Theological and Literary Essays in Honor of Samuel Terrien [red. J.G. Gammie – W.A. Brueggemann – W.L. Humphreys – J.M. Ward] [New York – Mussoula, MT 1978]
  • M. Liverani, Antico Oriente. Storia, società, ekonomia (Manulai Laterza; Roma 21996)
  • T. Longman, Fictional Akkadian Autobiography. A Generic and Comparative Study [Winona Lake, IN 1991]
  • J.R. Lundbom, Jeremiah 1–20. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary [AB 21A; New York 1999]
  • Lundbom, Jeremiah 37–52. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AB 21C; New York 2004)
  • J. Lust, „Exile and Diaspora. Gathering from Dispersion in Ezekiel”, Lectures et relectures de la Bible. Festschrift P.-M. Bogaert [red. J.-M. Auwers – A. Wénin] [BEThL 144; Leuven 1999]
  • W.R. Mayer, „Ein Mythos von der Erschaffung des Menschen und des Königs”, Orientalia 56 (1987)
  • J.E. Miller, „The Thirtieth Year of Ezekiel 1,1”, RB 99 (1992)
  • J.M. Miller – J.H. Hayes, „The Era of Assyrian Domination. The End of the Kingdom of Israel”, A History of Ancient Israel and Judah [Louisville, KY – London 22006]
  • N. Na’aman, „The Growth and Development of Judah and Jerusalem in the Eighth Century BCE. A Rejoinder”, RB 116 (2009)
  • N. Na’aman, „Population Changes in Palestine Following Assyrian Deportations”, Tel Aviv 20 [1993] 113)
  • B. Oded, „History vis-à-vis Propagandas. The Assyrian Royal Inscriptions”, VT 48 (1998)
  • B. Oded, Mass Deportations and Deportees in the Neo-Asyrian Empire (Wiedbaden 1979)
  • B. Oded, „Observations on the Israelite/Judaean Exiles in Mesopotamia During the Righth-Sixth Centuries BCE»”, Imigration and Emigration within the Ancient Near East. Festschrift E. Lipiński (red. K. van Lernerghe – A. Schoors) (OLA 65; Leuven 1995)
  • B. Oded, „Where Is the «Myth of the Empty Land» To Be Found? History versus Myth”, Judah and the Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period (red. O. Lipschits – J. Blenkinsopp) (Winona Lake, IN 2003)
  • S. Parpola, „The Construction of Dur- Šarrukin in the Assyrian Royal Correspondence”, Khorsabad, le palais de Sargon II, roi d’Assyrie. Actes de colloque organisé du musée du Louvre par le Service culturel les 21 et 22 janvier 1994 (red. A. Caubet) (Paris 1995)
  • L.E. Pearce, „New Evidence for Judeans in Baylonia”, Judah and the Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period (red. O. Lipschits – J. Blenkinsopp) (Winona Lake, IN 2003)
  • D.L. Petersen, „Creation and Hierarchy in Ezekiel. Methodological Perspectives”, Ezekiel’s Hierarchical World. Wrestling with a Tiered Reality (red. S.L. Cook – C.L. Patton) (SBLSymS 31; Leiden – Boston 2004)
  • W. Pikor, „«Albowiem Bogiem jestem, nie człowiekiem» (Oz 11,9). Miłosierdzie jako objawienie «inności» Boga w świetle proroctwa Ozeasza”, „Dobrze, Sługo dobry…” (Mt 25,21). Księga pamiątkowa ku czci ks. dr. Huberta Ordona SDS (red. K. Mielcarek) (Studia Biblica 9; Kielce 2005)
  • K.-F. Pohlmann, Der Prophet Hesekiel/Ezechiel. Kapitel 1–19 (ATD 22.1; Göttingen 1996)
  • B. Porten, Archives from Elephantine. The Life of an Ancient Jewish Colony (Berkley, CA 1968)
  • J.D. Purvis – E.M. Meyers, „Wygnanie i powrót”, Starożytny Izrael. Od Abrahama do zburzenia świątyni jerozolimskiej przez Rzymian (red. H. Shanks) (Warszawa 2007)
  • T. Renz, The Rhetorical Function of the Book of Ezekiel (VT.S 76; Leiden – Boston – Köln 1999)
  • G. Reux, Mezopotamia (Dzieje Orientu; Warszawa 2006)
  • D. Rom-Shiloni, „Ezekiel as the Voice of the Exiles and Constructor of Exilic Ideology”, HUCA 76 (2005)
  • R. Rothenbusch, „Das Ezechiel-Buch als Stimme der babylonischen Diaspora”, Studien zu Psalmen und Propheten. Festschrift für Hubert Irsigler (red. C. Diller i in.) (HBS 64; Freiburg 2010)
  • A. Ruwe, „Die Veränderung tempeltheologischer Konzepte in Ezechiel 8–11”, Gemeinde ohne Tempel/Community without Temple. Zur Substituierung und Transformation des Jerusalemer Tempels und seines Kults im Alten Testament, antiken Judentum und frühen Christentum (red. B. Ego – A. Lange – P. Pilhofer) (WUNT 118; Tübingen 1999)
  • W.M. Schniedewind, Come la Bibbia divenne un libro. La testualizzazione dell’antico Israele (Brescia 2008)
  • F. Sedlmeier, Das Buch Ezechiel. Kapitel 1–24 (NSK.AT 21/1; Stuttgart 2002)
  • F. Sedlmeier, „«Deine Brüder, deine Brüder...» Die Beziehung von Ez 11,14-21 zur dtn-dtr Theologie”, Jeremia und die „deuteronomistische Bewegung” (red. W. Groß ) (BBB 98; Weinheim 1995)
  • J. Van Seters, „The Creation of Man and the Creation of the King”, ZAW 101 (1989)
  • D.M. Sharon, „A Biblical Parallel to a Sumerian Temple Hymn? Ezekiel 40–48 and Gudea”, JANESCU 24 (1996)
  • J.L. Ska, Introduzione alla lettura del Pentateuco. Chiavi per l’interpretazione dei primi cinque libri della Bibbia (Roma 1998)
  • D.L. Smith-Christopher, A Biblical Theology of Exile (Overtures to Biblical Theology; Minneapolis, MI 2002)
  • H. Spickermann, Juda unter Assur in der Sargonidenzeit (FRLANT 129; Göttingen 1982)
  • Sweeney, „The Royal Oracle in Ezechiel 37,15-28. Ezekiel’s Reflection on Josiah’s Reform”, Israel’s Prophets and Israel’s Past. Essays on the Relationship of Prophetic Texts and Israelite History in Honor of John H. Hayes (red. B.E. Kelle – M.B. Moore) (LHB/OTS 446; New York – London 2006)
  • H. Tadmor, „The Aramaization of Assyria. Aspects of Western Impact”, Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarn (red. H.-J. Nissen – J. Renger) (Berliner Beitrage zum Vorderen Orient 1; Berlin 1982)
  • The Ancient Near East. Historical Sources in Translation (red. M.W. Chavalas ) (Malden, MA – Oxford 2006)
  • K. Van Der Toorn, „Migration and the Spread of Local Cults”, Imigration and Emigration within the Ancient Near East. Festschrift E. Lipiński (red. K. van Lernerghe – A. Schoors) (OLA 65; Leuven 1995)
  • B.K. Waltke – M. O’Connor, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax [Winona Lake, IN 1990]
  • C. Westermann, Genesis 1-11 (A Continental Commentary; Minneapolis 1994)
  • J.W. Wevres, Ezekiel (NCBC; Grand Rapids, MI 1956)
  • RR. Wilson, „The Death of the King of Tyre. The Editorial History of Ez 28”, Love and Death in the Ancient Near East. Essays on Honor of Marvin H. Pope (red. J.H. Marks – R.M. Good) (Guilford, CT 1987)
  • K.L. Younger, „The Deportation of the Israelites”, JBL 117 (1998)
  • R. Zadok, „Assyrian Deportations to the Province of Samerina in the Light of two Cuneiform Tablets from Tel Hadid”, Tel Aviv 27 (2000)
  • R. Zadok, „The Nippur Region during the Late Assyrian, Chaldean and Achaemenian Periods Chiefly according to Written Sources”, IOS 8 [1978]
  • W. Zimmerli, Ezekiel 1 (Hermeneia; Philadelphia 1983)
  • W. Zimmerli, Ezekiel 2 (Hermeneia; Philadelphia 1983)
  • J.R. Zorn, „More on Mesopotamian Burial Practices in Ancient Israel”, IEJ 47 (1997)
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.