Co všechno se skrývá pod termínem sekularizace? Krátká bilance pro historiky
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WHAT DOES 'SECULARIZATION' ACTUALLY MEAN? A BRIEF REVIEW FOR HISTORIANS
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A number of secularization 'paradigms' have been developed by sociologists and religionists. Each of them, however, covers only a part of this fully almost ungraspable social process because they derive from different points of viewing religion. From these heterogeneous secularization paradigms or concepts obviously follows that particularly in the 19th century, mostly between the 1848/49 Revolution and the First World War, this was not an easy, unambiguous or straight process. Secularization was rather a sort of struggle between the supporters of different opinions, such as the liberals and the ultramontane Catholics. Obviously, the 'results' of secularization largely differed, as in Europe very different forms of State-to-Church relations were chosen. As a result, a wide range of intellectual macroanalytical (sociological) legacy of the secularization process is available. Therefore, the specific course of the process cannot be ignored, and neither can be the fact that religious experiencing, organizing and thinking have not disappeared yet - and probably will never disappear - from the modern and postmodern world, although due to the growing significance of rational roles in society and the economization of everyday life they have largely withdrawn from the public space, or from the regular - both real and symbolic - content of that space. The struggle for power between the State and the Church in Christian-Jewish communities ended a long time ago and no one will probably dare to question the victory of the State (States) over the Church in the public space. This has been primarily achieved owing to the antiauthoritarian feelings of the emancipated, better educated and more mobile society, and also owing to the Church (Catholic in this country) itself. However, the costs of that victory will remain an onerous question forever.
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