A former classified material from the Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic reveals a series of steps which were undertaken by the Czechoslovakian government in their attempt to remove Bishop Vojtaššák (1877–1965) from office as the diocesan bishop of the Spiš diocese. The intention of this study is to complement this historical material with material from the collection of the historical archive of the State Office of the Holy See. By doing so and making use of this complicated and socially stirring case an interesting mosaic regarding the relations between Czechoslovakia and the Vatican over the years 1945 to 1949 is developed. The date 8th October 1945 can be considered a key moment. This is when the Secretary of State of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Vladimír Clementis (1902 to 1952), demanded that the ambassador of the Holy See of the Vatican replace Vojtaššák with another bishop as soon as possible. This issue which lasted nearly five years reveals the various steps taken by the political figures, members of the clergy, journalists and secret agents. It simultaneously highlights the political and social links between the relationship of the Catholic Church and the state over the years 1945 to 1950.