The texts from 1 Peter and the Book of Revelation show that the words about the kingdom of priests are firstly intended to strengthen Christians’ consciousness of their dignity during a time of persecution and to assure them of God’s sovereignty turning upside down the logic and order of this world. The task of Christians as the new people of God is to hold fast to their holy, god-given calling. The biblical authors express this sanctity with the help of images and metaphors from the Old Testament: “kingdom of priests”, “royal priesthood” etc., and apply them to Christians. In their situation of persecution and danger it was necessary to underline the basic identity of Christians that was characteristic of them and differentiated them from pagan society: they were elected by God and saved by the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The passages from 1 Peter and Revelation create the basis for a theology of the general priesthood of Christians, but the texts themselves do not deal with this dogmatic topic yet, because their intention is to support the fidelity of Christians during a time of persecution, discrimination and criminalisation in that society.