THE EARLY SOVIET DIALECT OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE (BASED ON THE GERMAN-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY BY A. F. NESSLER)
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The Germans settled in the Russian territories very early with the arrival of German unissionaries and merchants and intermarriages between noble families. In the 15th ad 16th cenury. German doctors, pharmacists, legal professionals, architects, craftsmen, and other specialists moved to Russia. The German population in Russia increased during the reign of Peter I, who invited foreigners to join the Russian army in exchange of various privileges. A mass influx of the German to Russia took place during the rule of Catherine II. The tsarina brought, mainly to the Ukraine and the Volga Region, thousands ofsettlers who were to be models of diligence and resourcefulness for Russian peasants and land owners. At the close of the 19th ctury nearly 2 million Germans lived there. After the October Revolution, the first Soviet census showed that 1 238 000 citizens of the german descent lived in the Soviet Union. It was the largest national minority with the historical homeland outside the Soviet Union. Like all the national groups, the Germans were subjected to violent. Sovietization (nationalization of property, collectivization, cultural and language autonomy that facilitated indoctrination) and then severe repression ( requisitions, starvation, exile, forced labour camps). In 1923, The Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was established. In the mid-1930s. As a consequence of the growth of fascism, the press run some anti-German campaigns. After the German invasion on the Soviet Union, the Volga Germns were deported to Siberia and Kazakhstan. The language of the Soviet Germans differed from the standard German. This dialect can be analysed by looking through German newspapers, books, handbooks, and propaganda materials published in large numbers in the interwar period in the Soviet Union. The Russian-German dictionary published in Moscow in 1934 is a valuable source for an analysis of the Soviet dialect as an excess of orientalisms easily transferred from the languages of Soviet nations, the presence of old neologisms to describe the new Soviet reality and Russianisms not used in the standard German.
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