The author examines comprehensively the issue of nation-wide referendum in the Slovak Republic as a form of direct democracy by which citizens exercise their voting rights. The article is the first comprehensive publication on this subject in the Polish literature, both in the theoretical and practical aspects. It describes the current legal situation (constitutional and statutory provisions), the case law of the Constitutional Tribunal in this respect and the practice of implementation of this measure – since the country’s independence until today. Both the strengths and weaknesses of the applied regulations are shown. The author also discusses the legal and technical measures associated with holding a nation-wide referendum as well as ex post and ex ante procedures used in referendum. In the final part he reflects on the fate of the referendum in Slovakia and the potential solutions that would improve the implementation of broad public participation in decision-making on the most important affairs of the state.