The article presents the findings on the effectiveness and competitiveness of Polish crop-oriented farms in comparison with corresponding farms in Hungary and Germany. The basis for the study was crop-oriented farms: those producing cereal and those producing other crops, under the FADN system between 2006 and 2008 by economic size units 2-4; 4-8; 8-16; 16-40; 40-100, and above 100 ESU. German farms were represented by units over 16 ESU. Polish and Hungarian holdings were similar in size and markedly larger than those in Germany, where a higher level of production intensification was observed, along with greater land productivity, measured in crop volume and production value per 1 ha of arable land, and higher work efficiency with lower asset productivity and lower management income at the same time. According to the cumulative evaluation index Polish cereal farms classified 4-100 ESU proved competitive in relation to the equivalent farms in other EU Member States.