The paper deals with the history of the Indian business communities in Russia in the years 1636–1725. It provides a critical review of existing literature and series of documents on the topic. In the overall context of the Indo-Russian trade relations describes the advent of Indian merchants in Russia and their impact on Russian cities. The core of the study consists of a description of the largest Indian community in Russia, the Indian community in Astrakhan. The economic, political and cultural status of this minority in Russia and its business activities is reconstructed based on the published records. In the final part, much attention is paid to the role of Indian traders in an effort to Peter I on the establishment of commercial and political relations with the Indian subcontinent.