The article describes peculiarities of the political system of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, a country which has been undergoing modernization, but certainly not as fast as the other spheres of social-economic life. Many of the shortcomings of the system were evoked and their elimination is postulated. The need for building a civil society: a broader participation of the Vietnamese in social, economic and political life, the necessity of a greater role played by private sector and its engagement in the financing of higher education and professional practice, as well as a further liberalization of commerce is called upon in the strategy. The Communist Party of Vietnam still plays a dominant role in the political system, and the elections to the National Assembly prove that there is no will of renouncing this model. Nevertheless, there were some attempts of change in this field. The party personnel has been rejuvenated. The new secretary general Nong Duc Manh started liberalizing the political system with great caution. The fact that he was reelected as secretary general at the 10th Congress, proves that the process of reforming the country is irreversible. On the other hand, we have to remember that this process is very unstable, shaky and characterized by a lack of consequence.