MARTYROLOGICKÉ PŘÍBĚHY VE 2. A 4. KNIZE MAKABEJSKÉ A JEJICH MOŽNÝ VLIV NA ŘECKÉ KŘESŤANSKÉ MUČEDNICKÉ TEXTY
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STORIES OF JEWISH MARTYRS IN 2 AND 4 MACCABEES AND THEIR POSSIBLE INFLUENCE ON GREEK CHRISTIAN MARTYROLOGICAL NARRATIVES
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The article compares how 2 and 4 Maccabees present stories of Jewish martyrs (Eleazar and seven brothers) and pays attention to formation of martyrological topoi in the 2 and 4 Maccabees and in early Christian marytrological narratives. The author of the 4 Maccabees accepts and expands topoi of the 2 Maccabees, but surprisingly he freely formulates them and does not accept phrases from 2 Maccabees (with one exception in 4 Macc 9,1 from 2 Macc 7,2). All motifs and topoi of the 2 and 4 Maccebees are used in the early Christian martyrological texts, but again there are no traces of acceptance of longer phrases (with the exception of Mart. Polyc. 2,3 from 4 Macc 11,26). The author of the 4 Maccabees accepts many expressions of Greek aretai terminology and he uses agonistic metaphors. The use of the word “endurance” (ὑπομονή) as the expression of virtue of the martyr in preference to other terms, as well as presence of the phrase “like a noble athlete”, seem to be innovations common both to the 4 Maccabees and to the Christian marytrological texts. Importance of the 4 Maccabees for the Christian marytrological narratives can be traced in influence of certain types of martyrs, especially of old man Eleazar and brave mother encouraging the youngest of the seven brothers. These types of martyrs exercised their influence on the narratives in Martyrium Polycarpi (especially in chapter 2) and Martyrium Lugdunensium (martyrs Potheinus, Blandina and Ponticus).
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