This paper is concerned with the Catholic priest Dominik Pecka and focuses on his contributions to education and his successful efforts to intertwine educational aims with the priestly vocation in the context of the so-called spiritual renewal of Czech Catholicism in the 1930s. Furthermore, the study presents important aspects of research into changes of priestly identity in the Czech Catholic milieu in the years 1890–1938. Several examples of reactions to the crisis of identity in the priesthood are highlighted. In addition, references are made to various approaches to the priestly vocation in order to better understand this topic within the said historical period. The paper also aims towards a deeper understanding of Dominik Pecka’s decision to stress the educational dimension of his pastoral work, as well as of specific situations that forced priests to reconsider their role in a modern secular society.