Tradycje kulturowe a życie polityczne w Mongolii (na przykładzie wyborów prezydenckich 2005)
Cultural traditions and political life in Mongolia
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Although Mongolia proclaimed its independence early in the 20th century, the country was forced to follow the policy dictated by the Soviet Union until the year 1992. During the period Mongolian political tradition and its main institutions were subjected to Soviet-style institutions. Still, this Russification and Marxist-Leninist ideology, did not eliminate the Mongolian traditional way of thinking and the ethos of this culture. After the communism collapsed, the Mongolians embraced democracy enthusiastically, adopted market driven economy and opened up to the Western-style democracy. The writer feels that numerous social and cultural issues of democratic changes were too difficult to be tackled in the Mongolian cultural condition. It should be remembered that there are enormous differences between the Western and the Eastern cultures. The notions such as power, authority, wealth, family and relative relationship or human being in Mongolian cultural context have quite different connotations than in Western understanding. Such cultural uniqueness produces a type of granting special political favours to Mongolian voters which is relatively unknown in the Western countries. Therefore, the shift to democratic society in Mongolia, like in many other Asian countries, should take place with clear explanation of the difference. The paper presents some historical and cultural issues of Mongolian tradition necessary for understanding of the political situation as well as the general features of main political parties. It also explains the reason of predominance of post-communist party and lack of success of the democrats in the country.
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