Instytucjonalne formy opieki nad emigracją z ziem polskich. Zarys problematyki
INSTITUTIONAL FORMS OF CARE PROVIDED FOR THE EMIGRANTS FROM THE POLISH LANDS. AN OUTLINE OF THE ISSUE
Languages of publication
The article analyzes the problem of aiding emigrants from the Polish lands in the long period from the end of the 19th century to the contemporary post-accession migration (after joining the structures of the European Union by Poland in 2004), excluding the period of the Polish People’s Republic, when emigrating from Poland was stopped for ideological reasons. In the main part of the article the author chronologically analyzes the social and political conditionings of the emigration processes, pointing to the forms of aiding emigrants in their preparations to leaving Poland. She considers the actions taken by various state and social institutions, as well as the special role played by the Catholic Church and the clergy in the care taken of emigrants. The analyses are based on historical and sociological works, and on the sources from Polish and Ukrainian (Lvov) archives. The article shows similarities and differences in the forms and circumstances of providing care and aid to emigrants. It also draws the reader’s attention to peculiar, especially modern, forms of support given to economic migrants. In the conclusion basic arguments justifying the significance of various type of aid given to emigrants are pointed to, like: a) protection from ethnic exclusion in the target country, b) protection from the loss of cultural-ethnic identity in the face of a cultural clash or the effect of globalization processes, c) protection from abuses and exploitation of emigrants by dishonest employment agents, d) making emigrants realize the need of proper actions protecting the family, and especially the children, from the negative consequences of separation, e) the significance of social and organizational actions for emigrants who have troubles with the basic actions necessary for fulfilling the requirements connected with going abroad.
Publication order reference