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2016 | 19 | 2 | -

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Identification of factors of perception of advertising and factors of perception of manipulation

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In the discussions about advertising, a significant place is taken up by the issues related to the attributes of its manipulative effects which are based on the cognitive evaluation of reality represented by the attributes such as rationality, wariness and coldness. The essence of manipulation is to promote personal goals at any cost and increase and maintain the power over others. Manipulation is based on unethical behaviour, intentional lies, blandishment, and lack of moral judgment. Usually, the issues of manipulative effects are studied within the cognitive, emotional and behavioural contexts. This report presents the results of extraction of factor structures of two original authors’ methodologies: POA (Perception Of Advertising; originally: VNR) and POM (Perception Of Manipulation; originally: VNM). By means of the Principal Components factor analysis with Varimax rotation, three factors of Perception of Advertising, which explain 59% of variance, were extracted. These factors were specified as the Cognitive factor - perception of advertising as truthful and knowledge-enriching (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.810), the Emotional factor - emotions invoked in respondents by advertising (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.866) and the Behavioural factor - impact of advertising on the buying behaviour of respondents (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.906). The extracted factors of Perception Of Manipulation explain 50% of variance and were specified as the factor of Honesty - honesty, modesty, morality (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.780), the factor of Manipulation identification - ability to reveal manipulative behaviour (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.766) and the factor of Distrust - tendency to credulity/incredulity towards other people (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.552). Adequacy of the specified structure of factors of Perception of Advertising and Perception of Manipulation is supported by the values of the total explained variance of Cronbach’s alpha, by the mutual inter-correlations among the extracted factors, as well as by correlations between the factor-saturating item and the overall score of the particular factor. The cognitive and emotional elements in the concepts of perception, assessment and attitudes towards advertising have been identified by various authors and the presented concept includes also the attribute of buying behaviour. According to the research results, the elements of manipulative behaviour are more frequently revealed by honest people.


  • Katedra manažérskej psychológie, Fakulta manažmentu, Prešovská univerzita v Prešove, Slovak Republic


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