Europejskie inicjatywy na rzecz zwiększania innowacyjności i konkurencyjności gospodarki przez internacjonalizację klastrów
EUROPEAN INITIATIVES FOR INCREASING INNOVATIVENESS AND COMPETITIVENESS OF THE ECONOMY THROUGH INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CLUSTERS
Languages of publication
The article focuses on the concept of clusters as innovative industrial structures and their role in the European Union economic policy. Firstly, it considers different economic benefits from clustering for enterprises as well as for regional and national economy. Secondly, it focuses on modern processes of internationalization of clusters, proving that after regional networking among local units it is time to generate interregional cooperation links and trans-border networks of clusters. Thirdly, it presents the place of the concept of clusters in the EU policy, as shown in different documents, such as the Strategy “Europe 2020”. Particular attention is paid to European programmes and actions aiming at stimulation of transnational cooperation of cluster initiatives which may influence innovativeness and competitiveness of the economy by enhancing technology transfer, diffusion of innovation and greater human capital development and mobility. Cluster structures correspond to an observable fact of fragmentation of knowledge and capital that make efficient innovative economic activity dependent not only on the internal resources of the organisation, but primarily on the combination of knowledge and skills of different actors, institutions, industries and fields of science, also above national borders (technoglobalism). Therefore, the concept of cluster falls in line with modern generation of models of innovation process and innovation policy, emphasising the role of cooperation among enterprises and between enterprises and scientific bodies. Hence, they may play an important role in generating and accelerating innovation processes and act as growth poles for regional, national and European economy.
Publication order reference