The phenomenon of Slovaks refers also to the five thousand compatriot minority in Croatia, who retained for more than two centuries their language and identity in different areas of Balkans. Despite the progressive assimilation, the minority group has been trying to maintain their national consciousness, ethnic identity and to cultivate Slovak culture. This effort was carried out against the background of profound geopolitical changes, as well as changes concerning ethnic awareness, that are characteristic for the Balkans in the 19th and 20th centuries and which had large effect on ethnic identity. It also affected Slovak ethnicity, language and its culture, which represent essential attributes of ethnicity. However, it is a means of integration within Croatian majority. Our attention is focused on the Western Srem in the Croatian territory where we have examined language and ethnic identity of Slovaks, particularly in the town of Ilok. Ilok lies on the on the crossing of the borders, cultures and confessions, where Slovaks have a rich cultural past and present.