The paper discusses two important intentions of moral philosophizing within the modern age philosophy. We mean the concept of the morality of doubt and the morality of duty. We perceive both ways of thinking about morality in close connection with the idea of justice. Morality and justice in the works of the modern age philosophers appear analogously as two interconnected virtues of man. This connection can be a key in current efforts to determine the limits of human rights as well as responsibilities. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to try to find an answer to the question: What does the transcendence of moral principles of doubt and duty into the socio-cultural space of modern Western society look like?