‘Amusement’ is differently valued in science (philosophy of morality, psychology, cultural studies) than in language, which is reflected, among others, in the development of the significance of its notions in the Polish and Czech language. Ethics and psychology place more value in the activity of ‘amusing someone’, i.e. in amusement ‘directed towards someone’, ‘giving pleasure to someone’ than in ‘amusing oneself’, ‘self-oriented amusement’, or ‘pleasure seeking’. Cultural studies does not accept ‘amusement’ to be synonymous to ‘amusing oneself’ as opposed to ‘amusing someone’; it treats this notion in autonomous terms and values it highly due to the inspiration it provides for artistic activity, be it musical or vocal expression, dance, or – indirectly – for visual arts. The semantic development of the aforementioned notions in the Polish and Czech language points to how the axiologically neutral meaning of ‘to stay, to reside’ evolves into the axiologically positive meaning of ‘giving pleasure’. Different contextual significance modifies the degree of positive assessment, changing the motives and actions, e.g. ‘amusing the guests’ can result not from altruism, but rather from social convention, often seen as an unpleasant obligation. A comparison of semantic changes occurring in the Polish and Czech languages only indicates minor differences in lateral semantic varieties, with the main current of alterations coinciding. There is, however, not enough research material to formulate general conclusions.