The article presents the genealogy of the process of self-organization of German Sinti in the context of the aftermath of the Nazi persecution of this group. The author points out the ambivalent construction of Sinti identity that has been developed in the course of the fight for compensation. It consists of the conviction of having been an integral part of the German society as well as the feeling of having been excluded from this society. This ambiguity is interpreted in terms of an anthropological model of double coding, in which identity is understood as a dynamic process of building the relations between the external and internal boundaries of the group. This model has been subsequently used in the description of the relations between Sinti and Roma.