The mythological faun embodies primitive joie de vivre, excessive erotic animation, a love of wine and musical passion. Modernism portrayed a considerably altered Faun: literature and art at the turn of the nineteenth century confirm an exceptional interest in this character, which up to then, and in assorted presentations, held a marginal and, at time, outright decorative place. Modernism enhanced the heretofore iconographic model with values whose sources are to be found in philosophy and the atmosphere of the epoch. A gallery of new likenesses opens with a poem by S. Mallarmé: L'après-midi d'un faune (1876). In the imagination of the French poet the faun turns into a contemporary melancholic. A considerably complicated personality is disclosed by the faun from J. Kasprowicz’s drama Marchołt (1920) – here, the deity plays the part of a mentor. Just as interesting is the faun created by Maria Konopnicka in her triptych (composed of Faun tańczy / The Dancing Faun /, Faun pijany / The Drunken Faun / and Faun śpiący /The Sleeping Faun/) from the volume entitled Italia (1901), and by L. Staff in the poem Faun podstarzały / The Aged Faun /. Both in these works and in Śmierć Fauna (The Death of a Faun) by Tytus Czyżewski the woodland deity appears to be a highly emotional creature, exceptionally sensitive and aware of the meaning of existence and his place within the space of culture. Modernist portrayals of the faun seem to be particularly interesting when they constitute an emanation of human features and are the carriers of human frailties and passions. Amidst all the mythological beings, the faun appears to resemble man the most, and is a portrait of all of man’s complicated conditions and extremities. In his capacity as a mask, the faun presents an embodied unity of antinomy: nature and culture, material qualities and spirituality, the earthly and the divine, the human and the animal, good and evil, freedom and determinism, instinct and the intellect, the sacrum and the profanum.