The paper describes the ways of interpreting and creating derivational (word-formation) constructions in hearing-impaired children. Quantitative analyses permit conclusions concerning the specificity of language acquisition in cases of limited hearing perception. Children with impaired hearing crack the code of their native language using special strategies of linguistic action. Examining word-formation phenomena from a cognitive perspective, we should recognize that there is a distinct correlation between the functioning of derivational and cognitive categories in the human mind. Hearing impairments contribute to activating the subjective rules of ordering the phenomena of the surrounding reality that are different from the intersubjective ways of interpreting the world encoded in the language.