Brytyjczycy wkraczają do Birmy (Historia trzech inwazji)
The British Encroach into Burma – the History of Three Invasions
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The British Empire came to Burma gradually. Three wars (1822-24, 1852, 1885) were necessary to conquer this country. The gist of this chapter is a detailed description of those three invasions, according to the most recent data and sources available. The author is quoting many primary sources, mainly British, from that period, like – for instance - the writings of Arthur Phayre, major Snodgrass, William F.B. Laurie, bishop Vincenzo Sangermano, the merchant Henry Gouger or Kinwun Myingyi. Some more recent studies, especially those of D.G.E. Hall, A.T.Q. Stewart (“The Pagoda War”), Thant Myint-U or Maung Htin Aung were also used. These research works and memoirs were mixed with volumes of documents (like “The Defeat of Ava” by Terence R. Blackburn or famous “The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma”) and major international comparative studies, like those found in “The Cambridge History of South-East Asia”. This is the first study of this kind ever to be published in Polish literature, being a part of a book by the author on the dramatic fate of Burma in its long history. In the final part of his study the author comes to the conclusion, that both British colonial wars and behavior in Burma has brought about fervent nationalism among Burmese elites, dissatisfied with the British negation of their Monarchy, the Sangha (Buddhist hierarchy) and traditional customs, for instance the monastic scholar system known as phongyi kyuang. Those were the reasons for the quick appearance of dacoity in vast Burmese territories and later the fierce and fervent nationalism visible in the actions of general Aung San and other thakins (i.e. Burmese “masters”), who eventually brought about a return to independence for the country in 1948. Thus, the history of the British invasion of Burma has some important features and lessons for other possible invaders, wherever and whoever they may be.
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