The aim of the study is to contribute to the explanation of mutual relations between personal need for structure, anxiety, optimism and self-efficacy. The research sample comprised 237 university students (men n = 48 and women n = 189). The following instruments were administered: Personal Need for Structure (PNS), Spielberger’s Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Life Orientation Test - Revised (LOT-R). Significant differences between men and women in their PNS score and its sub-factors – desire for structure and response to the lack of structure – were found. Women showed stronger need for structure and its sub-factors. Personal need for structure and the response to the lack of structure in women was positively correlated with anxiety. The sub-factor desire for structure did not show any relations with the studied characteristics. The results showed a negative relation of personal need for structure with optimism in women and no differences were found in the need for structure and its sub-factors in relation to the degree of self-efficacy.