The author pointed his attention to this special way of orientation in the terrain and identification of localities. A large semantic analyzes of some crucial words creating various ways of determining proximity has been done. The author used mainly texts of chronicles and charters, two quite distinct types of sources. Their mutual confrontation increased the testifying value of acquired information. He describes the relativem big variety and narrowness of meanings of concrete expressions defining proximity and tries to explain the difference from modern type of usage of similar terms by the relationship between to different concepts of space. The study follows the development of semantic fields of studied terms and depicts the shift after the period of colonization and social and economic changes in the 13th century.