During the search for factors constituting proof of existence of Silesian regional identity in the Late Middle Ages, the author analysed the process of formation and functioning of common tradition. Among the analysed, contributing factors is the name Śląsk/Silesia and the process through which it entered collective awareness. The Piast dynasty was a significant element of this tradition, considering the attempts for preserving their memory, primarily within historiographical works. Saint Hedwig of Silesia (died 1243) was of particular significance within this dynasty, her cult from dynastic in nature changed into regional, she became the patron saint of Silesia. In Silesian tradition Piotr Włostowic (died circa 1151) is very important as well, due to his literary and historiographical prowess he rose towards the status of regional hero. The local church was also significant for the forging of regional identity. This author analysed the actions he took for the purpose of preserving and strengthening within memory the knowledge about the bishops of Wrocław, indicating, among other things, the bishop catalogues, widespread in Silesia. Much attention was paid to the regional discourse, present within chronicles and plentiful chronicle annuals. In late Middle Ages it became the main platform for expression of regional issues. Analysing characteristics of particular events, the author pointed to the tangled routes through which the Silesian regional identity formed. It was primarily a result of far reaching ethnic changes, taking place in Silesia at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries and influence of cultural traits of bordering regions.