This article addresses the problem of law-related education and law-related upbringing in Russia and Belarus. The concept of law-related upbringing was developed in the USSR in the 1960s. In this article the author presents her view of this phenomenon as of one of the means that the Soviet system used in order to form a “new man”: law-related upbringing was used to indoctrinate society with Soviet values. In particular, the author explains the meaning that was attributed to the concept of law-related education and upbringing: in the USSR they were used to indoctrinate society with Soviet values and ideas and inculcate obedience to the laws of the state. Law-related education understood in an original way by the Soviet ideologues constituted the essence of obligatory and interchangeable in different aspects school subjects such as “The Constitution of the USSR”, “Obščestvovedenie” (social science), and “Soviet state and the law”. After the collapse of the Soviet Union this field of education was revised. Beginning from the mid-1990s some regions of Russia introduced the projects on so-called civic-and-law-related education. At the same time they restored the idea of law-related upbringing with the aim to use it for developing civil society and fighting with widespread legal nihilism. Dependence of tasks and contents of law-related and civic education on political regime is demonstrated on the example of Belarus, a country with authoritarian government. In contrast to Russia, Belarus accepted the Soviet version of law-related upbringing and has been using it to bring up citizens obedient to authorities and law. The article also emphasizes that tasks and contents of law-related and civic education depend not only on the political atmosphere in a given country, but also on the traditional legal culture as well as the type of statutory law.