Origins, establishment and structure of St. Piotr Skarga Association were investigated in this work. The subject of study was one of many Polish social and educational organizations, that existed before the First World War in the self-governing Galicia (1866-1918). Undoubtedly it can be treated as a reply of Polish catholic intelligentsia to the development of socialism and changes of European civilization in early twentieth century. Moreover, the long tradition of continuous efforts made by Polish society to preserve its language and culture in the time of partitions, seems to be crucial to understand the background of an idea of creating the new organization. The association described in this work was established in July 1908 in Lviv. Founders were inspired by local Sodality of Our Lady and the order of Jesuits, further the organization was structurally connected with Catholic Church. Articles of Association were also confirmed by the local authorities of the Habsburg Empire. The organization was named after St. Piotr Skarga: sixteenth-century Polish priest, famous Jesuit preacher and patron saint of upbringing according to the spirit of Catholicism and patriotism. The final mission of the Association consisted in aiming at rebirth of Polish state, mainly by developing education and consolidation of Polish national identity. However in practice priority was given to the advancement of Polish literary output: belles-lettres as well as popular science and various kinds of press. Activities of the Association assumed the shape of editing and advertising literature, create libraries and organizing lectures. Social response to the occurrence of a new organization in Galicia is also analyzed in the article, especially in terms of accusation of competing with similar Polish association: Society of People’s Education. Finally the short history of the Association of St. Piotr Skarga up to the Second World War is presented in the end of the work.